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material culture, migration and everyday life

Tag: statisics

Portuguese in Angola: what the statistics show*

Characterized by varied socio-professional, economic, cultural, etc. profiles, migratory flows to Angola increased from the 1990s onwards with the opening up of a market economy and with the Bicesse Agreements, whose measures facilitated the movement of migrants in Angolan territory. Similarly, the lack of border control mechanisms[1]in the face of illegal migration, the formation of migratory networks acting as an intermediary between individual actors or small groups and the structural forces of attraction, and the European and world crisis of recent years, were factors that not only supported but stimulated new migration flows to Angola.

From 2002 onwards, with the end of the civil war and, afterwards, with the global financial crisis of 2008 and the much talked about the crisis in Europe, these intensified and diversified in a wider context of globalized migratory flows. Currently, with the slowdown of the Angolan economy, in an environment (of financial and foreign exchange crisis) marked since mid-2014 by the fall in demand and lowering of oil prices and the lack of investment in other areas, with consequences in measures that have been taken to contain public spending, stalled investments, restrained access to the U.S. Dollar, devaluation of the Kwanza, difficulties in transferring money out of Angola, delays in salaries and payments to suppliers, etc., there is already talk of a possible decrease in migratory flows.

In the global context of the new Portuguese emigrants, Angola has emerged as one of the preferred destinations of many Portuguese who migrated outside the European Union, attracting tens of thousands of workers in recent years. Taking into account the average annual flows between 2008-2012 it is estimated that 10 to 12% went to Angola and Mozambique, 80 to 85% to Europe and 1% to Brazil (Pires, Pereira, Azevedo e Ribeiro 2014:37). 

Registrations in the Consulate General of Portugal in Luanda and Benguela, defined here over a period of 10 years, show that the numbers of 2008 to 2015 maintained a growth trend, from more than 72 thousand in 2008 to more than 134 thousand in 2015.

 

Consular registrations 2008 – 2017

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Observatório da Emigração

Continuing to analyze the evolution of the emigration of the Portuguese to Angola, but now based on the number of visas issued by the Consulate General of Angola in Lisbon and Oporto, it is confirmed that the Portuguese continued to go even with the economic crisis that since 2014 has been installed in that country:

Portuguese inflows in Angola

Year N Growth rate
2013 4651 _
2014 5098 9,6%
2015 6715 31,7%
2016 3908 -41,8%
2017 2962 -24,2%

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Observatório da Emigração

Contrary to some expectations, Portuguese emigration to Angola grew by around 32 % in 2015. However, it declined significantly from 2015 to 2016, close to 42% (- 2,807 entries) and 2016 to 2017 (…). The cumulative and prolonged effects of the crisis in Angola, directly influencing fewer inputs and more outputs, will help us to understand these data.

Studies are scarce, but the emigration of Portuguese to Angola has been accentuated and socio-economic, cultural, etc. profiles diversified. Apart from investors and entrepreneurs, there are still many expatriate Portuguese workers in Angola, in the context of very varied work proposals and migration projects (looking for new or better opportunities, unemployment …). We are interested in exploring and discussing them in the extension of the material dimensions of contemporary movements.

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* Consular records on Portuguese emigration to Angola should be read with caution. Not only is registration not mandatory, as its updating entails some maintenance weaknesses. On the other hand, the number of Portuguese consulates in Angola of people born in Portugal is only available for the year 2013, when 38,994 registered persons were registered.  A number far below those announced in the media, about 100 to 200 thousand or more.
[1] For example, the extensive border with the DRC, a country bordering 7 of the 18 provinces of Angola (Cabinda, Zaire, Malanje, Uige, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul and Moxico), has been the gateway for many illegal migrants DRC and West Africa.

Berlin: Portuguese migrant population with little female representation

According with official statistics, in 2017, Berlin had a population of over 3.5 million, of which a quarter was foreign.

The most represented countries were Turkey (11.4%), Poland (11.4%) and Italy (4.9%). Originating from the European Union countries were 49%  of immigrants, and Portuguese were 1.7% 

Berlin was the fifth German state with the largest EU migrant population and the fourth in terms of the lagest Portuguese population, with 10.2%, – or 14 905 out of the total of 146 810 – of all Portuguese living in Germany.

Portuguese migrants have traditionally settled in the more affluent and cosmopolitan German states of the south-west of the country, whose industrial centres imported most of the Portuguese workforce that arrived in the country during the 1960s and 1970s under the “guest workers” program (Gastarbeiterprogramm).

As for Berlin, the city has seen its Portuguese population grow steadily since the fall of the Berlin Wall and until 2017, when, already in the recovery of the finantial crisis which triggered unemployment in southern Europe, the number of Portuguese migrants tripled. However, while the female population doubled to 3 210, the male population quadrupled to 11 695, causing the female population to represent only 22% of the total number of Portuguese migrants in Berlin. The proportion of migrant women is significantly higher in the total immigrant population and among Germans.

The recent significant increase of the Portuguese population in Berlin, as well as the low representation of the female population, are relevant data in the characterization of the Portuguese population in Berlin. These findings open questions and raise hypotheses to be tested in the course of our investigation.

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