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material culture, migration and everyday life

Tag: ID

Germany ID: some emigration and immigration indicators

An estimated 6M left Germany between 1820 and 1920. A large portion immigrated to the USA. As the industrial era brought economic success to the German Empire the number of immigrants to Germany surpassed the number of Germans who left.

Traditional model of recruiting and temporarily employing foreign workers:  Italy (1955), Greece and Spain (1960), Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965) and Yugoslavia (1968). Foreign workers were employed primarily as unskilled, semi-skilled laborers in sectors were piecework, shift work. While immigration figures remained modest through the 1980s, the numbers rapidly grew again in the early 1990s.

Different from Portugal, who’s one of the EU countries with fewer immigrants, Germany is the country in Europe with the most amount of immigrants, and the second in the world, only after USA. In 2015, according to United Nations, Germany has an immigration net of 14,5% against a emigration net of 4,9%.

German emigrants are based manly in USA (40%), Switzerland (23%) and UK (21%). Portugal represents just 0,3% of the German outgoing flows in 2015. Despite that, from 2010 to 2015 the estimated number of Germans in Portugal has grown witch might indicated an increasing trend (United Nations, 2015).

Destatis 2017 counted 82.7M people living in Germany. At the same year, the immigration registered 12,9%. Persons born in the Turkey (14%) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, followed by persons born in Poland (8,2%) and Syria (6,6%). Portuguese’s represent 1.4% of the foreign nationals living in Germany with 146 810 persons in 2017, wherein 25% arrived in the last 8 years. (Destatis, 2017).

From de total of 10.6 millions immigrants in Germany, 13% has born in German land although without German citizenship. For instance, 28% of Turks has born in Germany, as well as 24% of Italians and 21% of Serbs. Among Portuguese immigrants, not more than 16% has born at German land.

Australian ID: some emigration and immigration indicators

Historically, more people immigrate to, than emigrate from, Australia. Immigration to modern Australia began in 1788, when the first British colony “Crown of New South Wales” was established. Like Canada, currently Australia became designated as the country of immigration.

Since the end of World War II the Australian population has quadrupled due to immigration incentive programs. Hundreds of thousands of immigrants from all over Europe and the Middle East arrived in Australia. After the abolition of the “White Australia” policy in 1973, which excluded non-European immigration, numerous government initiatives promoted ethnic harmony based on a multicultural policy.

According to the 2016 Census, there were 23.4 million people living in Australia. In 2016, 49% of Australians had either been born overseas (28.5%) or one or both parents had been born overseas and (20.5%). Persons born in the UK (3.9%) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, followed by persons born in New Zealand (2.2%), China (2.2%) and India (1.9%). The 2016 Census counted 15 806 persons who have born in Portugal (0.1%).

In 2015 United Nations estimated 526 579 Australians living outside Australia (2.2%), which indicates that outgoing movements are less relevant than the ingoing’s. Australian emigrants are based manly in UK (26%), EUA (15%) and New Zealand (12%). Portugal represents just 0,3% of the Australian outgoing flows during 21st century.

Angola identity card: some emigration and immigration indicators

According to the UN, Angola would have in 2015 about 555 thousand emigrants residing abroad. The number corresponds to 1.9% of the Angolan population. The same source indicates that the Angolans emigrated especially to the neighbor Democratic Republic of the Congo (33%) and Portugal (27%). If the case of DRC, since long time ago, the populations of the north of Angola circulate between the two sides of a boundary forced by the colonization. With Portugal the historical relations involve different phases and a complex and dynamic colonial past.

Angola has been assuming itself as a regional power in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2002, with the end of the civil war, the country has attracted immigrants with different socio-professional, economic and cultural profiles. The UN data have registered the presence of 106,845 immigrants in Angola for the year 2015, equivalent to only 0.4% of the population of the destiny country. In a vast context of globalized migratory flows, they found among the three most represented nationalities: DRC (40%), Portugal (15%) and Cape Verde (10%).

Comparing the countries analyzed in the project (Portugal, Germany, Australia), Angola is the one with the fewest number of entrances and exits of migratory movements.

Who is Portugal in the geography of contemporary migrations?

Like other European countries Portugal has a long history of emigration dating back to the colonial past. Immigration, in turn, is a relatively recent phenomenon. After immigration, beginning in 1974, had overcome emigration for almost three decades there has been a growing migration deficit since the mid-2000s. In other words, at levels that are only parallel to the population movements of the 1960s and 1970s.

According to the UN, Portugal presented na emigration rate of 22.1% against an immigration rate of 8.1%, being the origin of migrations to countries with more stable economies in Europe – the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Germany – and the destination of migrations originating in Cape Verde, Romania and Brazil. Considering the four countries analyzed in the project, Portugal not only has the highest percentage of exits but also distances a lot from the others (4.9%; Australia 2.2%; Angola: 1.9%). The same source indicates that among the total number of portuguese emigrants (2 306 321), 4% lived in Germany (98 464), 1% in Australia (20 044) and 1% in Angola (15 528). UN data indicate the presence of 837,257 immigrants in Portugal, in 2015, among which Angolans represent 18% of the flows (151,273), Germans 3% (26,048) and Australians 0.1% (1 164) only.

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