Transits

material culture, migration and everyday life

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Portuguese in Angola: what the statistics show*

Characterized by varied socio-professional, economic, cultural, etc. profiles, migratory flows to Angola increased from the 1990s onwards with the opening up of a market economy and with the Bicesse Agreements, whose measures facilitated the movement of migrants in Angolan territory. Similarly, the lack of border control mechanisms[1]in the face of illegal migration, the formation of migratory networks acting as an intermediary between individual actors or small groups and the structural forces of attraction, and the European and world crisis of recent years, were factors that not only supported but stimulated new migration flows to Angola.

From 2002 onwards, with the end of the civil war and, afterwards, with the global financial crisis of 2008 and the much talked about the crisis in Europe, these intensified and diversified in a wider context of globalized migratory flows. Currently, with the slowdown of the Angolan economy, in an environment (of financial and foreign exchange crisis) marked since mid-2014 by the fall in demand and lowering of oil prices and the lack of investment in other areas, with consequences in measures that have been taken to contain public spending, stalled investments, restrained access to the U.S. Dollar, devaluation of the Kwanza, difficulties in transferring money out of Angola, delays in salaries and payments to suppliers, etc., there is already talk of a possible decrease in migratory flows.

In the global context of the new Portuguese emigrants, Angola has emerged as one of the preferred destinations of many Portuguese who migrated outside the European Union, attracting tens of thousands of workers in recent years. Taking into account the average annual flows between 2008-2012 it is estimated that 10 to 12% went to Angola and Mozambique, 80 to 85% to Europe and 1% to Brazil (Pires, Pereira, Azevedo e Ribeiro 2014:37). 

Registrations in the Consulate General of Portugal in Luanda and Benguela, defined here over a period of 10 years, show that the numbers of 2008 to 2015 maintained a growth trend, from more than 72 thousand in 2008 to more than 134 thousand in 2015.

 

Consular registrations 2008 – 2017

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Observatório da Emigração

Continuing to analyze the evolution of the emigration of the Portuguese to Angola, but now based on the number of visas issued by the Consulate General of Angola in Lisbon and Oporto, it is confirmed that the Portuguese continued to go even with the economic crisis that since 2014 has been installed in that country:

Portuguese inflows in Angola

Year N Growth rate
2013 4651 _
2014 5098 9,6%
2015 6715 31,7%
2016 3908 -41,8%
2017 2962 -24,2%

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Observatório da Emigração

Contrary to some expectations, Portuguese emigration to Angola grew by around 32 % in 2015. However, it declined significantly from 2015 to 2016, close to 42% (- 2,807 entries) and 2016 to 2017 (…). The cumulative and prolonged effects of the crisis in Angola, directly influencing fewer inputs and more outputs, will help us to understand these data.

Studies are scarce, but the emigration of Portuguese to Angola has been accentuated and socio-economic, cultural, etc. profiles diversified. Apart from investors and entrepreneurs, there are still many expatriate Portuguese workers in Angola, in the context of very varied work proposals and migration projects (looking for new or better opportunities, unemployment …). We are interested in exploring and discussing them in the extension of the material dimensions of contemporary movements.

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* Consular records on Portuguese emigration to Angola should be read with caution. Not only is registration not mandatory, as its updating entails some maintenance weaknesses. On the other hand, the number of Portuguese consulates in Angola of people born in Portugal is only available for the year 2013, when 38,994 registered persons were registered.  A number far below those announced in the media, about 100 to 200 thousand or more.
[1] For example, the extensive border with the DRC, a country bordering 7 of the 18 provinces of Angola (Cabinda, Zaire, Malanje, Uige, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul and Moxico), has been the gateway for many illegal migrants DRC and West Africa.

Portuguese in Australia: about half of the Portuguese-born population lives in Greater Sydney

In 2016, the majority of Australians continue to live in the eastern mainland states. Approximately 77% lived in New South Wales (32%), Victoria (25%) and Queensland (20%) (Census, 2016). New South Wales was still the most popular state or territory to live in 2016 for Australia’s overseas-born population (34%), including the Portuguese (53%).

Place of Usual Residence (States)

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Australian Bureau of Statistics – Census 2016

The first movement of Portuguese migrants occurred during the 1950s mainly from Madeira Island towards Fremantle in Western Australia. Since then, Perth and Western Australia, in general, have been a frequent destination for Portuguese students and skilled labour which explains the higher presence of this group in this state compared to Australian and overseas-born population as a whole.

Portuguese – Year of Arrival in NSW, Australia (ranges)

Chart elaborated by the project “Transits” based on data from Australian Bureau of Statistics – Census 2016.

In 2016, the majority of Portuguese migrants continue to live in NSW (53%), of which 82% were living in the greater Sydney area. Most of them arrived in the state during between 1966-1975 (39%) and have continued to arrive in the following decades: 1976-1985 (18%) and 1986-1995 (21%). During the turn of the century, the arrival of Portuguese migrants has decrease sharply (3,7%). However, in the middle of the first decade of the XXI century, the arrival of Portuguese has increased again (10%). The recent and significant increase of the Portuguese population in New South Wales is evident and crucial for our research, opening new questions about the configuration, projects and aspirations of this newcomers. 

East and West: where do immigrants live in Germany and Berlim

The richer and more industrialised south-western states of Germany are ususally preferred by immigrants. This is seen as still related to the division between East and West Germany before unification: to overcome shortage of East Germany workers after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961, West Germany extablished bilateral agreements with southern countries where unemployment rates were high, so that guest-workers (Gastarbeiter) from these countries would move to and work in Germany industrialized hubs. The intent of the proprams was that these residents would stay in Germany only temporarily, but the reality is that, together with their families, they became permanent residents.
The big numbers of Turkish immigrants in Germany and in Berlin – where we can find the biggest Turkish community outside Turkey – are directly linked with the guest-worker programm.

Today, the majority of Portuguese migrants (first and second generation) reside in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia (26.1%), Baden-Württemberg (20.1%) and Hessen (10,5%).

In Berlin, where the Wall devided the city in East and West Germany, we can find a microcosmos of Germany as a whole, with the West part of the city being more affluent and cosmopolitan than the East. Mitte, in the historical centre of Berlin is the district with a higher percentage of immigrants, both first generation (green in the map) and second generation (dark blue). The West districts of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and Neukölln also have high rates of foreign born population, with the East districts of Marzahn-Hellersdorf and Treptow-Köpenick having the lowest rates. EU nationals (of which we excluded Poland because of its overbarring weight in proportion to other EU countries) generally follow this tendency. There is no data for Portuguese migrants.

https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2018/SB_A01-05-00_2017h02_BE.pdf

Berlin: Portuguese migrant population with little female representation

According with official statistics, in 2017, Berlin had a population of over 3.5 million, of which a quarter was foreign.

The most represented countries were Turkey (11.4%), Poland (11.4%) and Italy (4.9%). Originating from the European Union countries were 49%  of immigrants, and Portuguese were 1.7% 

Berlin was the fifth German state with the largest EU migrant population and the fourth in terms of the lagest Portuguese population, with 10.2%, – or 14 905 out of the total of 146 810 – of all Portuguese living in Germany.

Portuguese migrants have traditionally settled in the more affluent and cosmopolitan German states of the south-west of the country, whose industrial centres imported most of the Portuguese workforce that arrived in the country during the 1960s and 1970s under the “guest workers” program (Gastarbeiterprogramm).

As for Berlin, the city has seen its Portuguese population grow steadily since the fall of the Berlin Wall and until 2017, when, already in the recovery of the finantial crisis which triggered unemployment in southern Europe, the number of Portuguese migrants tripled. However, while the female population doubled to 3 210, the male population quadrupled to 11 695, causing the female population to represent only 22% of the total number of Portuguese migrants in Berlin. The proportion of migrant women is significantly higher in the total immigrant population and among Germans.

The recent significant increase of the Portuguese population in Berlin, as well as the low representation of the female population, are relevant data in the characterization of the Portuguese population in Berlin. These findings open questions and raise hypotheses to be tested in the course of our investigation.

Kathy Burrell at ICS this week

Germany ID: some emigration and immigration indicators

An estimated 6M left Germany between 1820 and 1920. A large portion immigrated to the USA. As the industrial era brought economic success to the German Empire the number of immigrants to Germany surpassed the number of Germans who left.

Traditional model of recruiting and temporarily employing foreign workers:  Italy (1955), Greece and Spain (1960), Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965) and Yugoslavia (1968). Foreign workers were employed primarily as unskilled, semi-skilled laborers in sectors were piecework, shift work. While immigration figures remained modest through the 1980s, the numbers rapidly grew again in the early 1990s.

Different from Portugal, who’s one of the EU countries with fewer immigrants, Germany is the country in Europe with the most amount of immigrants, and the second in the world, only after USA. In 2015, according to United Nations, Germany has an immigration net of 14,5% against a emigration net of 4,9%.

German emigrants are based manly in USA (40%), Switzerland (23%) and UK (21%). Portugal represents just 0,3% of the German outgoing flows in 2015. Despite that, from 2010 to 2015 the estimated number of Germans in Portugal has grown witch might indicated an increasing trend (United Nations, 2015).

Destatis 2017 counted 82.7M people living in Germany. At the same year, the immigration registered 12,9%. Persons born in the Turkey (14%) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, followed by persons born in Poland (8,2%) and Syria (6,6%). Portuguese’s represent 1.4% of the foreign nationals living in Germany with 146 810 persons in 2017, wherein 25% arrived in the last 8 years. (Destatis, 2017).

From de total of 10.6 millions immigrants in Germany, 13% has born in German land although without German citizenship. For instance, 28% of Turks has born in Germany, as well as 24% of Italians and 21% of Serbs. Among Portuguese immigrants, not more than 16% has born at German land.

TRANSITS Survey

 

 

 

Dear followers

TRANSITS is spreading a survey to Portuguese citizens residing in Berlin, Sydney and Luanda, and to German, Australian and Angolan citizens residing in Lisbon.

We would like to ask your collaboration for filling and distributing the survey.

Portugueses in Berlin, Sydney and Luanda –  https://ics.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_7ZCzCWesL3sgg3r

 Angolans in Lisbon –  https://ics.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_eyC04XZKXxu8Q2F

 Australians in Lisbon –  https://ics.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_2memDykHHXxTVHL

Germans in Lisbon –  https://ics.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3slwydeMYoQKGdn

Only complete surveys will be considered valid. Participation is anonymous and data will be handled and used exclusively by researchers of the TRANSITS team.

TRANSITS focuses on present-day bidirectional movements of people and things between Lisbon, Luanda, Berlin and Sydney. The survey seeks to know people under those movements, their trajectories, expectations, migratory projects, and their relationships with the contexts of departure and arrival. Being an innovative research project, it is important that TRANSITS survey reaches as many people as possible in order to be faithfully to people’s lives and voices.

TRANSITS team is available for any further questions or additional information through email: transits.ics.ul@gmail.com

Thank you for your time!

TRANSITS team,

 

Australian ID: some emigration and immigration indicators

Historically, more people immigrate to, than emigrate from, Australia. Immigration to modern Australia began in 1788, when the first British colony “Crown of New South Wales” was established. Like Canada, currently Australia became designated as the country of immigration.

Since the end of World War II the Australian population has quadrupled due to immigration incentive programs. Hundreds of thousands of immigrants from all over Europe and the Middle East arrived in Australia. After the abolition of the “White Australia” policy in 1973, which excluded non-European immigration, numerous government initiatives promoted ethnic harmony based on a multicultural policy.

According to the 2016 Census, there were 23.4 million people living in Australia. In 2016, 49% of Australians had either been born overseas (28.5%) or one or both parents had been born overseas and (20.5%). Persons born in the UK (3.9%) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, followed by persons born in New Zealand (2.2%), China (2.2%) and India (1.9%). The 2016 Census counted 15 806 persons who have born in Portugal (0.1%).

In 2015 United Nations estimated 526 579 Australians living outside Australia (2.2%), which indicates that outgoing movements are less relevant than the ingoing’s. Australian emigrants are based manly in UK (26%), EUA (15%) and New Zealand (12%). Portugal represents just 0,3% of the Australian outgoing flows during 21st century.

Angola identity card: some emigration and immigration indicators

According to the UN, Angola would have in 2015 about 555 thousand emigrants residing abroad. The number corresponds to 1.9% of the Angolan population. The same source indicates that the Angolans emigrated especially to the neighbor Democratic Republic of the Congo (33%) and Portugal (27%). If the case of DRC, since long time ago, the populations of the north of Angola circulate between the two sides of a boundary forced by the colonization. With Portugal the historical relations involve different phases and a complex and dynamic colonial past.

Angola has been assuming itself as a regional power in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2002, with the end of the civil war, the country has attracted immigrants with different socio-professional, economic and cultural profiles. The UN data have registered the presence of 106,845 immigrants in Angola for the year 2015, equivalent to only 0.4% of the population of the destiny country. In a vast context of globalized migratory flows, they found among the three most represented nationalities: DRC (40%), Portugal (15%) and Cape Verde (10%).

Comparing the countries analyzed in the project (Portugal, Germany, Australia), Angola is the one with the fewest number of entrances and exits of migratory movements.

Conferência Transits:

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