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material culture, migration and everyday life

Category: Germany

Migration and migrants in the media

The farewell of Portuguese migrants (DN); Protests in favor of refugees in Germany (Reuters/Fabrizio Bensch); Immigrant detention center in the Manus Island, Australia (Reuters)

The analysis of the media is a contextualization task, the objective of which is to help us understand the prevalent representations of migrants and migration issues, as well as the prevalent representations of the contexts covered by our project (Portugal, Angola, Australia and Germany).

Written press sources from each of the countries were selected according to their representativeness in terms of circulation, influence on public opinion and tendency to reproduce the content of other national publications. The news pieces were collected via the newspapers’ websites. The period covered is January 2017 to June 2018.

The task is ongoing, however, we have finalized the collection and preliminary analysis of the Portuguese newspapers Público e Diário de Notícias, from which a total of 818 journalistic pieces have been collected.

Relating to migration, the themes most covered by these two newspapers were, firstly, the restrictive migratory policies in countries like the USA,  Italy and Hungary; followed by the Mediterranean migratory flow. In terms of national themes, those most written about were  Golden Visas and the naturalisation of migrants. Within emigration, the bulk of the focus was about demography and specific professions.

Australia appears mainly in pieces about terrorism and pedophilia. Migration here appears in relation to the illegal detention of refugeesThe news about Portuguese in Australia are overwhelmingly concerning surf events. There are no pieces about Australians in Portugal.

The pieces concerning Angola report mainly the economic crisisthe power transition between presidents Santos and Lourenço and operation Fizz. As for migration, the news reports on migratory policies. News about Portuguese-Angolan relations focuses on diplomatic and economic relations. The news coverage about Angolans in Portugal is very small, with a focus on the number of Angolans who live in Portugal, and Angolan students’ difficulties in receiving money from Angola.

Germany is portrayed as a  strong economy that influences Europe and Portugal. News about migration focus on crimes against immigrants and immigration advocatesmigration policies and refugees. Portuguese migrants appear in news about nurses and Portuguese companies in trade fairs.  News about Germans in Portugal focus on German companies.

We will continue to share our findings as they emerge.

Stories of migrants in Berlin – by Reuters

«More than 1 million people have come to Germany as migrants since 2015 under Chancellor Angela Merkel’s open door policy.»

However, Merkle’s policies and views on migration have made her unpopular amongst the most conservative and the increasingly powerful far right,  both in Germany and in the EU.

On the eve of the CDU voting on Angela Merkle successor for the 2021 Germany election,  Reuters published in its photojournalism website “The Wider Image”, a piece that tells the stories of three migrants in Berlin:  Ali Mohammad Rezaie from Afghanistan, Haidar Darwish from Syria and Joseph Saliba, from Syria.

They are stories about their own personal pathways to integration in the city of Berlin.

Read it here!

16 AUG 2018. BERLIN, GERMANY. REUTERS/FABRIZIO BENSCH

East and West: where do immigrants live in Germany and Berlim

The richer and more industrialised south-western states of Germany are ususally preferred by immigrants. This is seen as still related to the division between East and West Germany before unification: to overcome shortage of East Germany workers after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961, West Germany extablished bilateral agreements with southern countries where unemployment rates were high, so that guest-workers (Gastarbeiter) from these countries would move to and work in Germany industrialized hubs. The intent of the proprams was that these residents would stay in Germany only temporarily, but the reality is that, together with their families, they became permanent residents.
The big numbers of Turkish immigrants in Germany and in Berlin – where we can find the biggest Turkish community outside Turkey – are directly linked with the guest-worker programm.

Today, the majority of Portuguese migrants (first and second generation) reside in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia (26.1%), Baden-Württemberg (20.1%) and Hessen (10,5%).

In Berlin, where the Wall devided the city in East and West Germany, we can find a microcosmos of Germany as a whole, with the West part of the city being more affluent and cosmopolitan than the East. Mitte, in the historical centre of Berlin is the district with a higher percentage of immigrants, both first generation (green in the map) and second generation (dark blue). The West districts of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and Neukölln also have high rates of foreign born population, with the East districts of Marzahn-Hellersdorf and Treptow-Köpenick having the lowest rates. EU nationals (of which we excluded Poland because of its overbarring weight in proportion to other EU countries) generally follow this tendency. There is no data for Portuguese migrants.

https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2018/SB_A01-05-00_2017h02_BE.pdf

Berlin: Portuguese migrant population with little female representation

According with official statistics, in 2017, Berlin had a population of over 3.5 million, of which a quarter was foreign.

The most represented countries were Turkey (11.4%), Poland (11.4%) and Italy (4.9%). Originating from the European Union countries were 49%  of immigrants, and Portuguese were 1.7% 

Berlin was the fifth German state with the largest EU migrant population and the fourth in terms of the lagest Portuguese population, with 10.2%, – or 14 905 out of the total of 146 810 – of all Portuguese living in Germany.

Portuguese migrants have traditionally settled in the more affluent and cosmopolitan German states of the south-west of the country, whose industrial centres imported most of the Portuguese workforce that arrived in the country during the 1960s and 1970s under the “guest workers” program (Gastarbeiterprogramm).

As for Berlin, the city has seen its Portuguese population grow steadily since the fall of the Berlin Wall and until 2017, when, already in the recovery of the finantial crisis which triggered unemployment in southern Europe, the number of Portuguese migrants tripled. However, while the female population doubled to 3 210, the male population quadrupled to 11 695, causing the female population to represent only 22% of the total number of Portuguese migrants in Berlin. The proportion of migrant women is significantly higher in the total immigrant population and among Germans.

The recent significant increase of the Portuguese population in Berlin, as well as the low representation of the female population, are relevant data in the characterization of the Portuguese population in Berlin. These findings open questions and raise hypotheses to be tested in the course of our investigation.

Germany ID: some emigration and immigration indicators

An estimated 6M left Germany between 1820 and 1920. A large portion immigrated to the USA. As the industrial era brought economic success to the German Empire the number of immigrants to Germany surpassed the number of Germans who left.

Traditional model of recruiting and temporarily employing foreign workers:  Italy (1955), Greece and Spain (1960), Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965) and Yugoslavia (1968). Foreign workers were employed primarily as unskilled, semi-skilled laborers in sectors were piecework, shift work. While immigration figures remained modest through the 1980s, the numbers rapidly grew again in the early 1990s.

Different from Portugal, who’s one of the EU countries with fewer immigrants, Germany is the country in Europe with the most amount of immigrants, and the second in the world, only after USA. In 2015, according to United Nations, Germany has an immigration net of 14,5% against a emigration net of 4,9%.

German emigrants are based manly in USA (40%), Switzerland (23%) and UK (21%). Portugal represents just 0,3% of the German outgoing flows in 2015. Despite that, from 2010 to 2015 the estimated number of Germans in Portugal has grown witch might indicated an increasing trend (United Nations, 2015).

Destatis 2017 counted 82.7M people living in Germany. At the same year, the immigration registered 12,9%. Persons born in the Turkey (14%) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, followed by persons born in Poland (8,2%) and Syria (6,6%). Portuguese’s represent 1.4% of the foreign nationals living in Germany with 146 810 persons in 2017, wherein 25% arrived in the last 8 years. (Destatis, 2017).

From de total of 10.6 millions immigrants in Germany, 13% has born in German land although without German citizenship. For instance, 28% of Turks has born in Germany, as well as 24% of Italians and 21% of Serbs. Among Portuguese immigrants, not more than 16% has born at German land.

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