Within the scope of the project Transits, we have decided to conduct a media content analysis, considering the online available written press, between January 2017 and June 2018. It will focus on the production of media representations about “migrants”, “emigrants”, “immigrants”, “expatriates” and other related terms.
Focusing on the flows from and to Berlin, Luanda, Lisbon and Sydney, this analysis will explore the way migrants and migrations are represented in the public sphere, as well as the type and degree of acceptation/hostility these populations are facing in the contexts of analysis. The type of news that is being privileged by the selected press will also be an object of study.
The survey in the Angolan press focus on two daily newspapers: Jornal de Angola and O País.
The preliminary analysis for the Angolan media is divided into three items: general migration flows to Angola, conjuncture in Portugal and Angola, general migration flows in the world. In the first and second items, brief content analysis will be carried out, in the item general migration flows in the world will only be described as the kind of news that each newspaper focuses more.
This post, in addition to the brief biographical reference of the newspapers, contemplates a brief content analysis regarding the item general migration flows to Angola, taking into account the more focused themes in the different sections of the respective newspapers. In the next post about Luanda#3, the analysis will focus on the items conjuncture in Portugal and Angola and general migration flows in the world.
Jornal de Angola
At the time of Angolan Independence on 11th November 1975, the newspaper Província de Angola, founded on August 16th 1923 by Adolfo Pina, owned by Companhia Gráfica de Angola, S.A., changed its name to Jornal de Angola. In June 1976, Agostinho Neto, then President of the Republic, nationalized the journal under the Decree-Law nº 51/76 (Supplement of the Jornal de Angola, 26th June 2016, pp. 2,4).
The journal’s headquarters are located in Empresa Gráfica de Angola, S.A., where it started to operate and continues to do so through the publishing company Edições Novembro, E.P. Its current editions include:
Jornal de Angola (http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao//);
Jornal dos Desportos http://jornaldosdesportos.sapo.ao/);
Jornal Angolano de Arte e Letras (http://jornalcultura.sapo.ao/);
Economia & Finanças (http://jornaldeeconomia.sapo.ao/empresas).
Jornal de Angola is a daily newspaper, controlled by the Angolan State. It celebrated 43 years in June of 2019.
Distributed in the country’s 18 provinces, it has a daily average distribution of 12,934 copies, through direct sales and by subscription. Luanda, Moxico and Benguela are the provinces where the largest number of sales is reported (Supplement of the Jornal de Angola, 26th June 2016, p.3).
The online publication of news is distributed in the following sections: “Politics”, “Reports”, “Opinion”, “World”, “Economy”, “Provinces”, “Society”, “People”, “Culture” and “Sport”.
At the weekend Jornal de Angola also publishes notebooks and supplements. The selection of themes and news is varied. It can fall on a determined theme – fashion, technology and management, etc. – or focus more on the social, cultural and economic field of one of the provinces of Angola.
The newspaper O País, founded in November 2008 by the Medianova group, recently celebrated its 10-year anniversary. The online publication of news is distributed by the sections: “Politics”, “Society”, “Economy”, “Opinion”, “Culture”, “World” and “Sport”.
The Grupo Medianova, the largest private communication group in Angola, is the owner of Zimbo TV, Rádio Mais, the newspapers O País and Semanário Económico, the Revista Vida and Revista Exame.
Angolan press – preliminary analysis / General migration flows to Angola 
|Jornal de Angola||O País|
|Section||Number of news||Section||Number of news|
|Notebooks and supplements|
|Jornal Metropolitano da Capital Angolana||2|
The more focused topics in the two newspapers news about general migratory flows to Angola are:
Visa waiver program, flow regulation, expulsion and repatriation of illegal immigrants, detention.
Trade, security and control, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Namibia, Republic of Congo, and Zambia.
Exodus, borders, welcoming, census, biometric registration, support and financing, repatriation (voluntary/involuntary), return, detention.
Foreign investment, foreign workers, national production, import-export, The new Regime for Foreign Nationals, The New Foreign Investment Law.
United Nations data showed that there were 106,845 immigrants in Angola for the year 2015, which is equivalent to only 0.4% of the population of the country. The three most represented nationalities were Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (40%/), Portugal (15%/) and Cape Verde (10%/).
When talking about migrant populations, Angolan newspapers appear to only report on citizens of DRC and Portugal in Angola, but not Cape Verdeans. These papers also report a strong presence of “Chinese” and “West African” immigration (Malians, Senegalese, Guineans, Gambians, Mauritanians, etc.) to Angola. However, “Chinese” immigration to Angola is rarely identified in official statistical sources.
As we will see, daily life (civic participation, reception networks, residential insertion, professional, leisure practices, etc.) of Portuguese immigrants in Angola, little or nothing is highlighted in the news of the two newspapers (as regards the period under review). On the other hand, there are several reports that talk about immigrants and refugees of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Angola. The influx of immigrants and refugees from the DRC coincides with political turmoil within eastern DRC.
This is most relevant in seven of the 18 provinces of Angola (Cabinda, Zaire, Malanje, Uíge, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul and Moxico) which share a border with the DRC. The Jornal de Angola has called this shared border ‘the gateway for many illegal immigrants’, mainly from the DRC and West Africa. The lack of resources and border control mechanisms and the formation of migration networks to aid immigration also appear as factors that support and encourage “illegal” immigration into Angola.
As one would expect, the news reports grossly overestimate migrants’ incidence of participation in illegal immigration and crime. These news articles are most often presented through essentialist, deterministic and descriptive perspectives of the complexity of migratory flows to Angola. The centrality of the issue is so great that several pieces describe in detail the number of illegal immigrants registered, as well as the number, degree and type of offenses or crimes committed.
News reports on the experiences of migrants from a perspective of illegality and criminality mainly describe crimes of – quoted and translated from reports – smuggling (of various types of goods) or financial crime, falsification of documents, sale of narcotics (“liamba”), illegal logging and diamond smuggling, poaching, forest devastation (for logging), and the involvement of nationals (ordinary citizens and sobas/“traditional authorities”) and foreigners in networks of aid to illegal immigration.
There are some reports of homicide and abduction of immigrants in Angola. Chinese entrepreneurs based in Angola appear to suffer the most from this type of violence.
As I mentioned earlier, the centrality of the issue of migration from the point of view of illegal immigration and crime is so great that several pieces describe in detail the number of illegal immigrants, the degree and type of crimes, etc. The dissemination of these numbers wins emphasis through official figures called on to talk about migration (police, provincial governors, other politicians), much to the detriment of the voices of the immigrants or of another approach to migration.
Officials called to talk about migration have included: National Police, Angolan Armed Forces, Angola Border Guard Police, Migration and Foreigners Service, Criminal Investigation Service, Detention Center for Illegal Foreigners, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Anibal de Melo Press Center, etc.
There is a systematic convergence of the news articles on the need to adopt policies for security and border control and regulation of migration flows. The news does not contemplate any form of policy formulation for the socio-cultural integration of immigrants and granting nationality.
Needless to say, officials called to speak about migration present the public with several controversial speeches. In several reports, it is argued that the presence of “illegal immigrants” puts “the country’s sovereignty and the economy at risk”, namely: “national unity”, “territorial integrity of the country”, “peace” and “stability in the construction of the nation”.
The repeated representation propagated about the condition of migrants through notions such as “emigrant”, “immigrant”, “foreigner”, “expatriate” (and others…), regardless of your legal background (“illegal”, “legal”, “resident”, “non-resident”, etc.), suggest a confused notion of its meaning.
Described as “transgressors”, “undocumented”, “irregular”, “clandestine”, (but also) “citizens”, the illegal “immigrants”, “foreigners”, “refugees”, “expatriate”…, are often the target of negative narratives that include violence, prejudice, informal market (poverty/ unemployment/social problems/forms of survival), bribery, corruption, convictions, surveillance, repatriation, expulsion and detention.
However, the notions of “foreigner” and “expatriate” also appear in some parts concerning certain labour flows (“Portuguese entrepreneurs”, “Chinese entrepreneurs”, “foreign worker”, etc.) and certain types of consumption, such as real estate demand.
Homogenized ethnic categories and status of nationality are used to serve as generic names about the status of migrant: “citizens of the DRC”, “DRC foreigners”, “foreigners from the Republic of Congo”, “citizens of Congolese nationality”, “citizens of West African countries”, “citizens of the Central African Republic” the “foreigners of Congo Brazzaville”, “citizens of Asian origin”, “Cameroon”, “Malian”, “Chinese”, etc.
Poor profiling of migrants in terms of their migration objectives, education, employment, age, resources, family dynamics, etc. does not mean that there aren’t sometimes references to gender, age (“men”, “women”, “children”) and/or regions of origin migrants or refugees (“Kaisai refugees”).
1] The difference in the number of news between the two newspapers is due to the fact that the online version (not paid) of the newspaper O PAÍS, unlike Jornal de Angola, only provides a limited number of news by section. As new news comes in, others are no longer available. Faced with this limitation, the collected of news in the newspaper O País (started in March 2018) only covers the period from November 14th 2017 to June 30th 2018, for each section. The World section of the newspaper O País contemplates only news about Africa (this also explains the difference in the number of news between the two newspapers, to the world section). And the Sports Section (of the newspaper O País) although it refers to soccer news only, some publications cover other modalities. It was in the policy section where we collected more news.